Q. Referencing Live Performances (Performance students ONLY)


Most students do not need to provide a reference for live theatre, dance or music performances, as these cannot be retrieved after the event.  Instead you should provide all relevant details in the text of your essay (ie. do not include a reference at the end).

However at Salford we ask that Performance students in the School of Arts & Media do include references live performances.

This guide -

  • Is for Arts & Media students studying programmes in the Performance Directorate (not Music, Media or other subject areas).

  • It covers live performances only.


Referencing Live Performances

Remember a reference has two parts –

1. In-text entry

In the body of your essay, include the director/choreographer and year.


The National Theatre production of Jane Eyre (Cookson, 2016) made clever use of multiple voices to convey the central character’s inner turmoil.

Breen’s powerful production of A Day in the Life of Joe Egg (2011) highlights how the themes of the play are still relevant today.

2. Reference list or bibliography

  • Use the name of the director or choreographer as the author
  • Include the role (Director)
  • Give the date of the performance that you saw (use year, month, day).
  • Give the title of the play or performance in italics
  • Include “by” followed by the playwright name (e.g. by William Shakespeare)
  • Include [Theatre Production] in square brackets
  • Name the Theatre and its location separated by a colon. (e.g. Leeds Playhouse: Leeds)


Name of director (Director) (date of performance) Title of play by playwright [Theatre production]. Theatre: place


Cookson, S (Director) (2016, Jan 9) Jane Eyre adapted by the National Theatre Company [Theatre Production] National Theatre: London

Breen, P (Director) (2011, Nov 12) A day in the life of Joe Egg by Peter Nichols [Theatre Production] Citizens Theatre: Glasgow.


  • Last Updated Sep 26, 2018
  • Views 358
  • Answered By Joanna Wilson

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